Aortic valve replacement is a type of open heart surgery where the damaged aortic valve is replaced with an artificial valve to restore its normal function. The heart is accessed by cutting the breastbone and opening the chest. A cardiac perfusion machine (heart-lung bypass) is used to drive the circulation and heart is stopped. The surgeon then removes the diseased aortic valve and sutures a prosthesis (metallic or tissue artificial valve) in place. The Heart-lung machine is disconnected and the heart starts beating again. The chest wound is closed by wires and the skin is sutured with stitches.